There are distinct signs and symptoms of breast cancer, they include:
*Redness over breast skin.
*Peeling and flaking of skin around nipples.
*Lump in breast.
*Change or new dimple on breast skin.
*Change in size, shape, and appearance of breast.
How breast cancer can be diagnosed:
- Ultrasound: This is a high frequency sound wave kind of test that produces details of the internal structure of the breast. This test is to highlight any abnormal lump or mass in the breast.
- Breast examination: This is the physical way some doctors check the breast tissue for lumps, by checking the breast and the lymph nodes in the armpit for abnormalities.
III. Breast MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging): This is an advanced imaging diagnostic test that uses magnets and radio waves to create detailed image of the breast tissue. Contrast dye are usually injected into the breast before the MRI to help highlight any abnormalities in the breast tissue.
- Mammogram: This is a breast examining test done through x-ray, they are also effective in highlighting lumps or mass in the breast tissue.
There are different kind of breast cancer treatments, here are some listed below:
- Mastectomy: This being one of the major surgeries for breast cancer is a treatment that involves removing the entire mammary tissue, like the milk ducts, nipple, areola, lobules and some portion of the skin.
- Contra lateral prophylactic mastectomy: With this surgery, even if the cancer affects just one of the breast, the tissues of both breasts will be removed. This Is to prevent the risk of the cancer reoccurring in the affected breast, and then spreading to the healthy one.
- Sentinel node biopsy: This surgery is done to remove a few of the closest-situated lymph nodes near the breast to check for cancerous cells.
- Axillary lymph nodes dissection: This is usually done if the surgeon finds any cancer cells in the sentinel lymph nodes. The surgeon might also need to remove the additional lymph nodes near the armpit.
- Lumpectomy: This is a surgical treatment for women with smaller breast tumours. This surgeon uses a local excision method to remove the cancerous tissue and small margin from the healthy tissues to prevent chances of the cancer reoccurring.
- Radiotherapy: This as the name applies is a radiation therapy. It involves the use of high energy x-ray to locate and eradicate the cancer cells in the breast tissue. The surgeon might either use minimal invasive technique to insert a small radioactive device into the breast to gain closer access in giving effective radiation dose to the cancerous breast tissues, or it can be done as an external procedure.
- Chemotherapy: This is a treatment for breast cancer that involves a combination of medically designed drugs that destroy the cancerous cells in the breast. This method of treatment is used for treating a large sized breast tumour. The drugs are effective in reducing the large cancerous tumours in the breast which can then be safely removed with surgical methods.